Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe:
In “Understanding by Design,” Wiggins and McTighe (1998) lay out a conceptual framework for instructional designers. Unlike many instructional design models that come from a training background, the Wiggins and McTighe model is well suited for the academic community. Two of their biggest contributions are:
The “backwards design” instructional design model
The “Six Facets of Understanding”
Six Facets of Understanding
Provide thorough and justifiable accounts of phenomena, facts, and data.
Tell meaningful stories, offer apt translations, provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas and events; make subjects personal or accessible through images, anecdotes, analogies, and models.
Effectively use and adapt what they know in diverse contexts.
See and hear points of view through critical eyes and ears; see the big picture.
Find value in what others might find odd, alien, or implausible; perceive sensitively on the basis of prior indirect experience.
Perceive the personal style, prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape and impede our own understanding; they are aware of what they do not understand and why understanding is so hard.